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|Related EE.com Pages|
|How to Stay Healthy|
|Food and Water|
|Hepatitis A and Typhoid|
|Malaria and Yellow Fever|
|Altitude Sickness and Other Diseases|
|Medical Packing List|
Hepatitis A, highly endemic throughout the developing world, is a viral disease transmitted principally through contaminated food and water, though transmission may also occur through person-to-person to contact. The risk of Hepatitis A infection is highest for travelers who live in or visit rural areas, spend significant time trekking in the backcountry, and/or eat in restaurants with poor sanitation. Incidence of Hepatitis A in Ecuador has declined over the years but the disease is still common. The Hepatitis A vaccine or immune globulin (IG) is recommended for all South American travelers.
Typhoid Fever is a severe, sometimes life-threatening, illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Typhoid Fever is common in the developing world, including many parts of Latin America. Therefore, if you are traveling to Latin America you should take the appropriate precautions.
The Salmonella typhi bacterium lives only in humans. Persons infected with Typhoid Fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, some persons that recover from Typhoid Fever continue to carry the bacteria. They are called carriers. Both persons infected with Typhoid Fever and carriers shed the bacterium in their stool.
Typhoid Fever is generally spread from eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person who is infected with or carrying the Salmonella typhi bacterium and/or if sewage contaminated with the bacterium gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Avoid getting Typhoid Fever by getting vaccinated against it, avoiding food and drink you suspect may carry the bacterium, and washing your hands often.
If you contract Typhoid Fever you may suffer from all or some of the following symptoms: a fever as high as 103° to 104° F (39° to 40° C), a rash of flat, rose-colored spots, weakness, stomach pains, headache, and loss of appetite. See a doctor immediately if you think you have Typhoid Fever. Deaths rarely occur when the disease is diagnosed and treated early. You will probably be given an antibiotic to treat the diseases, and after the treatment is begun, people usually begin to feel better within a few days.
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